Amonkhet is a large set with 101 commons, 80 uncommons, 53 rares, 15 mythic rares, four variations of each standard basic land, and 30 masterpieces. Not counting the masterpieces, this is the normal size for a large set of this era. Foil cards are included in booster packs with advertised odds of 1 : 67 cards. Masterpieces have advestised odds of 1 : 1935 cards. The set was printed in English in the USA and Belgium.
Amonkhet was sold in 15 card booster packs (which contain an additional ad card). Booster boxes have 36 packs.
The US printing uses sequential collation with C1/C2 common collation.
Packs are back-facing and have 10 commons followed by 3 uncommons, a rare, a basic land, and an ad card. If there is a foil card, it will appear after the rare, displacing a common. (This includes masterpieces.)
|10 Commons||3 Uncommons||1 Rare||1 Land||1 Ad Card|
|9 Commons||3 Uncommons||1 Rare||1 Foil||1 Land||1 Ad Card|
Packs are evenly split between C1 commons and C2 commons. C1 packs have 2-3 A cards, 2 B, and 4-5 C. C2 packs have 4 A cards, 2 or 4 B, and 2 or 4 C.
When a foil appears in a pack, it will displace a common card. Common foils displace A commons and only appear in C1 packs. Uncommon foils displace B commons. Rare foils displace C2 commons. Masterpieces displace C1 commons. Common foils appear 1 in every 8 packs. The uncommon and rare rates are not known exactly.
As normal, uncommons are split into equal A and B runs with one or two A cards followed by one or two B cards appearing in each pack.
Full art lands are apparently printed on a different sheet than the other basic lands and appear in 1 out of 4 packs.
The A common run consists of 33 different cards each appearing twice. The cards are alternating white, blue, and red. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
The B common run consists of 22 different cards each appearing three times. The cards are alternating black and green. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
The C1 common run consists of 27 different cards each appearing twice plus Binding Mummy, the short-printed common. It cards of all colors and colorless cards. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
The C2 common run consists of 18 different cards each appearing three times plus Binding Mummy, the short-printed common. It cards of all colors and colorless cards. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
The A uncommon run consists of 40 different cards each appearing three times. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
The B uncommon run also consists of 40 different cards each appearing three times. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
Most of the marketing cards in Amonkhet have a token on the front face. In addition, there is a card that has an advertisement for Magic Duels on the front face. (The front has a PEGI rating and the back has ESRB, so I'm not aware of any region differences.) They are printed on an 11 × 11 sheet with different items appearing different numbers of times. The choice of first card is mostly arbitrary.
There are also punch cards that appear in 1 out of every 4 packs. These are printed on a different sheet.
|Angel of Sanctions × 1||Gideon of the Trials Emblem × 1||Glyph Keeper × 1|
|Heart-Piercer Manticore × 1||Hippo × 1||Honored Hydra × 1|
|Temmet, Vizier of Naktamun × 1||Vizier of Many Faces × 1||Aven Wind Guide × 2|
|Drake × 2||Labyrinth Guardian × 2||Oketra's Attendant × 2|
|Snake × 2||Trueheart Duelist × 2||Wurm × 2|
|Beast × 4||Anointer Priest × 6||Aven Initiate × 6|
|Insect × 6||Sacred Cat × 6||Tah-Crop Skirmisher × 6|
|Unwavering Initiate × 6||Cat × 8||Duels Ad Card × 12|
|Zombie × 15||Warrior × 24|
There is a picture of the foil common sheet available.  Each common card and each basic land variation appear once.
There is a picture of the foil uncommon sheet available.  Each uncommon card appears once. The extra copies of Vizier of Deferment are presumed to be fillers.
There is a picture of the foil rare sheet available.  Each rare card appears twice, and each mythic rare card appears once.
 Picture of all three foil US sheets were posted in the Misprints facebook group by Corrado Iozzia.